PENANCE OF THE SAGES IN NAIMISHARNYA
DIALOGUE BETWEEN SUTA AND THE SAGES
Once upon a time, about
twenty-six thousand sages assembled in the holy ambience of Naimisharanya. All
of them had renounced their desires and homely comforts and were worshipping
Lord Vishnu for the benefit of the entire humanity.
During their stay in
Naimisharanya, those sages called a huge assembly to discuss about the means of
attaining all the four goals of life like Dharma, Arth, Kama and Moksha. The
great sage Shaunak was presiding over the assembly. He said: "O sages! We
have assembled here to discuss the most cryptic disciplines of life. But it is
beyond my powers to answer the questions you have put before me. Only a great
sage like Suta, who is the most learned disciple of Vedavyasa, is able to answer
these questions. Presently, he lives in a hermitage in Siddhipeeth. Let us all
go there and request him to preach us about the cryptic disciplines of
Hearing these words, all
the sages thanked Shaunak with joy. Then, led by Shaunak himself, all of them
reached the hermitage of the sage Suta. At the hermitage, sage Suta welcomed
them all and satisfied their queries. He said:
" O great sages! I
narrate to you, the great Purana, which was once narrated by the great saint
Sanatkumar to Devarshi Narad and now known as Narad Purana."
NARAD PRAYS TO LORD VISHNU
Shaunak says: "Sutaji,
how did Sanatkumar unfold the mystic character of the religion to Narad? When
and where they had the meeting to hold this pious discussion? Kindly tell us in
Sutaji says: "The
great sage Sanatkumar, who was free from illusions, was the creation of
Brahmaís imagination. He always remained engrossed in the worship of Brahma.
Once, he was going towards the peaks of the mighty Meru Mountains (Himalayas)
when on the way, he happened to sight the sacred Ganges. He was about to take a
dip in the waters when Devarshi Narad also arrived there. Devarshi Narad greeted
his elder brother and took bath in the river.
After carrying out usual rituals, they seated there and started a discussion about the virtues of Lord Vishnu." Devarshi Narad asked- "O brother! How can one realize the Lord Vishnu? Who is the cause of this whole creation? What is the appearance of devotion, knowledge and penance? Kindly elaborate the mystery of treating the guests also. Also tell me, how did Lord Vishnu effected the origin of Brahma and other gods?"
Sanatkumar says: In the
beginning of creation, the self-illuminating Lord Vishnu created Brahma from His
right hand side, Rudra from His central part and Vishnu, his own replica from
His left hand side. As Lord Vishnu is omnipresent, similarly his illusions are
also omnipresent and known with different names like Lakshmi, Uma, Shakti and
Chandi. These are the powers of Lord Vishnu. Some people identify these powers
with the illusions created by the Lord whereas the sages regard them as
The gods, who protect
the world, are Purush, and the Supreme Being, who is above these levels, is
Lord. Nobody else is greater than He is. From His navel even Brahma has
originated on a divine lotus. He is the Supreme Being the eternal joy
incorporating all the three virtues.
O Narad! Five senses-
sights, sound, scent, touch and taste have originated from the ego. Ego is the
origin of other eleven senses also. These five senses in turn gave rise to five
physical elements- ether, air, fire, water and earth. It was after the creation
of these five physical elements that Brahma created the lower living beings.
Then he created human beings followed by the creation of all the seven worlds
and seven guards of these seven worlds. For the inhabitation of the living
beings, Brahma also created great mountains, plains and seven seas.
Towards the north of the
great saline sea and towards the south of the great Himalayas is situated the
Holy Land of India. People who worship Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu inhabit this
land. Because of their virtues, even the gods worship the people who populate
the Indian landmass. Those ignorant people, who do not seek salvation despite
having been born in India, have to suffer the tortures of hell as long as the
Sun and the Moon shine in the sky. The whole world from Brahma to a seemingly
unimportant blade of grass is the manifestation of Vasudev (Lord Vishnu).
PROFILE OF THE SAGE MARKANDEYA
Sanatkumar says: O sage!
Faith has the greatest significance. Achievement of everything and appeasement
of Lord Vishnu depend upon the faith. Nothing is attainable without faith. Such
as a human being faces inertia in the absence of life and is rendered
motionless. Similarly, faith is like a spiritual light without which, religious
actions of a man come to cease. Similarly, devotion is also known as the life of
all the achievements. It is also the giver of four supreme goals of life like
Dharma, Arth, Kama and Moksha. No action succeeds without the input of devotion
and faith. Even the menial jobs done with faith gives everlasting results. On
the contrary, even the pious actions of envious people go futile. Attainment of
God by envious people is impossible.
Envy is the greatest
enemy of the human being. It creates a gap as big as the one that separates the
sky from the nether world. O Brahmanandan! Only those people, who remain
engrossed in faithful devotion of God, attain to the abode of Vishnu. Fallen are
those who, despite having the knowledge of Vedas, do not comply with the moral
code of conduct of their clan. Neither Vedas nor even devotion can salve such
people. In other words, moral conduct is everything. O great sage! Devotion is
like mother who is the base of life for every living being.
O Narad! Company of the
pious people and the saints is the best means to cherish devotion. Saints are
the teachers of the entire world. When the sins that have been accumulating all
throughout the previous births decay only when one gets pious company and those
who once get pious company experiences eternal joy.
Narad says: "O
great devotee of Lord Vishnu! Kindly relate the actions and appearance of the
Lordís devotees to me."
"During the period of Pralay, when all the world was inundated, Lord Vishnu
was sleeping on a Banyan leaf. That scene had amazed Markandeya, the supreme
devotee of the Lord."
The sages asked:
"When all the world was inundated, how did Markandeya escape? Sutaji kindly
remove our doubt."
Sutaji says: "O
great sages! Now, I am going to narrate the tale of Markandeya. Listen to it
Once upon a time, there
lived a fortunate sage in the pious land of India. The sage was famous as
Mrikandu. He had observed a very severe penance at the holy pilgrimage center of
Shaligram. His penance began to cause worry for Indra. So, accompanied by other
gods, Indra reached to Lord Vishnu who was resting on Sheshnaag in Ksheersagar,
the ocean of milk. The gods prayed the Lord to protect them from the radiance of
Mrikandu. Listening to the prayers offered by the gods, Lord Vishnu appeared in
His four-armed form holding conch, wheel, mace and lotus in each of those arms.
His radiance was enough to beat the shine of crore Suns. His radiance caused
tremendous joy for the gods who fell flat at the feet of the Lord.
Lord says: "O gods!
Get up. I am fully aware about your miseries. But your worries are meaningless
because Maharshi Mrikandu is really a gentleman. He is not going to harm you in
any way. Even if the situation arises, I am always ready to protect you."
Saying these words, the Lord disappeared. Thus, assured by the Lordís words,
the gods also returned to their abode. On the other hand, pleased by
Mrikanduís penance, Lord appeared before him. As soon as Mrikandu opened his
eyes, he saw Lord Vishnu standing before him. Lordís four-armed, blue and
radiant appearance caused great exhilaration for Mrikandu. He fell flat at His
feet and prayed Him with tearful eyes. Pleased with his prayers, Lord asked
Mrikandu to seek a boon. But Mrikandu refused saying that he had attained
salvation just by having His sight. Still, Lord said that His appearance never
goes in vain," So, I will be your son who will live a long life."
Granting this boon, the Lord disappeared.
TALE OF THE SAGE MARKANDEYA
Narad says: "O
great sage! Why did Lord Vishnu appear as the son of Mrikandu? What did He do as
his son? The Puranas say that during the Pralay, Markandeya had witnessed the
direct appearance of Lord Vishnuís illusion. Kindly narrate these things in
"Listen O Devarshi! After observing severe penance, the sage Mrikandu got
married and received an equally virtuous and chaste wife. In the tenth month
after their marriage, his wife gave birth to an extremely beautiful baby. The
baby in fact had incorporated the radiance of the Lord. Mrikandu carried out all
the necessary rituals and consecrations of the baby happily. In his fifth year,
he carried out the thread ceremony of his son and started to educate him in
Vedas. His education developed all the pious virtues in his son whom he had
named Markandeya. After finishing his education, sage Markandeya also started a
severe penance to please Lord Vishnu.
Pleased by his penance,
Lord Vishnu blessed him with a boon of creating Purana Samhita. This is the
reason why the sage Markandeya is also known as Narayan. O Brahmins! Lord Vishnu
did not annihilate Markandeya during the Pralay only to show him His illusions.
It was due to this grace that Markandeya survived the Pralay and passed that
time floating on a Banyan leaf. As long as the Lord slept, Markandeya kept
floating on that leaf. As long as the night of the Lord lasted, Markandeya
stayed on that flimsy leaf. At the end of the night, when the inundating Pralay
receded and the Lord awakened from His prolonged sleep, He began the work of
creation again. It was even more amazing for Markandeya to see the inundating
water recede and new creation taking place. He began to pray the Lord with
folded hands. Pleased by his prayers, the Lord said that He always protected His
devotees even during the most severe crises. Markandeya then asked about the
appearance of the true devotees of the Lord. He also expressed his curiosity to
know the reasons of their birth.
Lord Vishnu says:
"O great among the sages! The greatest devotees are those who do not harm
others with their mind, words and actions and who are free from envy. Those who
have impartial view are best among the devotees. Those who protect the human
beings, cows, Brahmins, vegetation and remain engrossed in discussion of
Lordís virtues. Those who salute the garden of basil and put the earth from
basilís roots on their heads, those who are beloved to Lord Shiva, put Tripund
on their forehead and worship Him performing Yagyas facing south. Those who
always donate water and cereals, cows and daughters are the excellent among all
the devotees. O great sage! These are some of the characteristics of a true
devotee. Cherish these characteristics and you will also attain salvation in the
last." Thus, preaching, Lord Vishnu disappeared. Markandeya thereafter led
a pious life and observed penance and in the last he too attained to the supreme
abode of the Lord.
THE GREATNESS OF THE GANGES
Sutaji says- "The
glorious description of devotion for Lord Vishnu caused extreme joy for
Narad says: "O great sage Sanat! Now kindly tell me about such a place of pilgrimage which is even holier than the holiest places of pilgrimage."
Sanatkumar says: O Narad! Confluence of Ganga and Yamuna is the holier than any other place of pilgrimage. The extremely sacred and pious Ganga rises from the feet of none other than Lord Vishnu. Yamuna on the other hand is the daughter of Surya. Even the remembrance of Ganga is enough to do away with all the sins and making one peaceful.
This place where Ganga and Yamuna merge is famous as Prayaag in the world. It is the same place where Brahma had once invoked Lord Vishnu in a Yagya. Since then, innumerable sages have followed Brahma and performed different kinds of Yagyas there. Even a person who recites the name of Ganga hundred miles from Prayaag attains salvation. Smear the sand of Gangaís bank on the forehead is like, in a way, bearing the crescent shaped Moon on the head. Those who remember Ganga receive the benefit of performing pilgrimage to all the holy places. Among other places of pilgrimage, Varanasi has almost equal significance to that of Prayaag. O Brahmin! Ganga is the mother of the entire world. Mere touch of her sacred waters salved the sixty thousand sons of Sagar. No one can describe the greatness of Ganga
FATE OF KING BAAHU
Narad says: "O
great sage who in the dynasty of Sagar received salvation from Preta Bhava. Who
was Sagar? Kindly narrate his whole story to me."
Sanatkumar says: "Long ago, there occurred a king named Baahu in the dynasty of Surya. He was very religious in nature and looked after his subjects like his own offspring. Everyone was happy in his kingdom, which he ruled with polity and justice".
But destiny was playing another game for the king. With time, evils like envy and ego began to rise in the mind of Baahu. He began to think that nobody else was as religious as he was. These evils in turn caused the king to incline towards sensual pleasures. O Narad! An unconscious mind is the greatest cause of destruction. Everyone, even the better half begin to nurture hostility against such a person. So, the same thing happened with the king Baahu. Many neighbouring kings together launched a massive attack on the kingdom of Baahu and defeated him after a month-long fierce battle.
After his defeat, the king Baahu left his kingdom and began to wander along with his queens. At last, he came to stay beside a big lake. Even the local inhabitants and lower creatures hid seeing the king approach. His subjects too had lost their sympathies for him.
Now the life of the king was not more than the death. So, repenting his condition, king Baahu met his death in the presence of the sage Aurv. At that time, his youngest queen was expecting an issue. After her husbandís death, she decided to commit Sati. But, the sage Aurv prevented her convincing that her would be son would enjoy more popularity than his father had. Besides, nothing is more wretched than killing an unborn baby. Thus, convincing the queen with all means, sage Aurv guided the queens to perform cremation of her husband and other rituals. Since then, both the queens began to live in the hermitage of sage Aurv.