Mala’s are excretory elements. These are three and termed as Thrimalas-

(1) Pureesha (The Faeces)
(2) Mutra (The Urine)
(3) Sweda (The Sweat)

The word Thrimala is used, to refer 3 types of excretory systems present in the body and not just the excreta. Mala can be translated as metabolic end products. This means that each cell which is a living factory will produce, under the influence of the Doshas , wastes (mala) which in turn influence adversely the functions of the Dhatus that produce them.

Thus Dosha, Dhatu and Mala form a tripod of health

Gyanendriyas are sensory organs. They are the organs of perception. Since they are the tools to acquire –"gyana" –the knowledge or information, they are termed so. They are five in numbers-

Akshi (The Eyes)
Karna (The Ears)
Nasika (The Nostrils)
Jihwa (The Tongue)
Twacha (The Skin)

These five are termed as Indriyadhisthana. It means, the prime location of sensory perception. Every Gyanendriya is a complex system and not just, one or two organs. Each of these Gyanendriyas have a definite object of perception. This object of a sensory organ is termed as Indriyartha.


Pada (The Feet)
Hasta (The Hands)
Vagindriya (The sense of speech)
Paya (The Anus)
Upastha (The Genetalia)

The name of karmendriya includes the entire structure and functional mechanism of that particular organ. The function of a karmendriya is referred to as Indriyartha.


Manas or the mind is considered as 11th Indriya by Ayurveda. By virtue of its functions, Manas performs the functions of both Gyanendriya, the sensory organs and Karmendriya, the motor organs.

It has two specific characters, viz. Ekatwa (solitude or seclusion) and Anutwam (subtleness). Because of its Subtleness, Manas can move swiftly. For its swiftness, Manas is considered as the fastest object in the universe.

Manas are an entity that is responsible for generation of knowledge. It plays an instrumental role in the perception of Indriyartha. For this purpose, it conjugates itself, with the respective gyanendriya and receives sensory signals.

Gyanendriya can’t perceive any type of knowledge on its own, without conjugating itself, with Manas or Mind. Also, it is important to note that, Manas can conjugate itself, with only one sense organ at a given point of time and not more than one. But, it can move from one organ to the other, swiftly-within a split second. Functioning of Karmendriyas also needs a conjugation with Manas

Apart from such dual role, Manas is also responsible for some more faculties. Analysis, Thinking, Imagination are some of such special functions of Manas.


Buddhi is another constituent of Purusha. In terms of modern Psychology, Buddhi comprises intellect and will. It contemplates the circumstances that call for an action and provides rule of conduct. Will control the disposition, in harmony with the dictum from Buddhi

Manas has an ability to perceive various stimuli through Indriyas. Also, it can analyze them in terms of merits & demerits. Based on such analysis, Buddhi produces a decisive knowledge. Thus, Buddhi-the intellect is ultimate decision-maker.


The word Atma can be literally translated as Soul. Concept of Atma has been the central dogma of Indian Philosophy.

Atma conjugates with all the constituent elements of human body, which is eternal. Such conjugation of Atma is only restricted to the instruments (such as sensory organs, mind & intellect) but, not their with their deeds.

Atma is omnipresent. It is constituent among all forms of life. The biological functions of all living systems are attributed to the presence of Atma, in a body-where all other constituents are incorporated.