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supreme soul bestows his endless bounty on all creation without discrimination.
However, human beings enjoy a privileged position because God has endowed them
with intelligence. A human mind can think of its interests and is inclined to
act accordingly. The Supreme soul, the father of all creatures, wishes well
irrespective of the quality of the creature. Hence, time and again, he takes
incarnations as animals, birds, aquatic animals and human being in order to do
away with the crises that face humanity. At the same time, the incarnation
created by God teaches valuable lessons through his qualities. Often, the sage
and ascetics act as a means of carrying out the work for the benefit of all.
VATSAYAN:EXPONENT OF KAMASUTRA
before the exposition of Kamasutra, a certain sage called Babhravpanchal had
compiled a treatise, the Kama Shastra. It
is a large collection but unavailable at this time. It is an extensive text and,
later scholars divided it into different volumes. Maharshi Vatsayan had actually
produced an abridged version of the Kama Shastra. There are disputes regarding the time
period of Vatsayan. But experts fix
the time of Vatsyayan when Patana was famous as Pataliputra.
Evidently, the commentator Vatsyayan of NyayaDarshan and exponent Vatsyayan of
Kamasutra, are the same person. Some servants even assert that Vastsayan was the
third name of Vishnugupt – the other two being Chanakya and Kautilya.
Yashodhar, the commentator of Kamasutra has identified Vatsayan as Mallanaga.
Hence, his original name appeared to be Malanaga, with a tile of Vatsyayan.
OF HUMAN CREATION
all creatures, humans have also received certain rights and duties for a
successful existence. Objects of comforts have also been provided. For a human
being there are four objects for his existence. These are Dharma (religion),
Arth (luxuries), Kama (carnal pleasures) and Moksha (salvation). Most people
neither crave nor strive for all four. The first three – religion, luxuries
and carnal pleasures are more important for them. Maharishi Vatsayana regards
these three objects as the basic reason of existence. Everybody strives to
achieve one or more of these objects with all his might. Shastras or disciplines
help a person to achieve the object he deserves.
OF KAMA SHASTRA
enthusiasm, determination, faith and capacity, human beings fail to achieve
their objectives for want of a competent guide. Kama or carnal pleasure is one
of the main objects of the human existence. But without well-laid discourse and
discipline, no one can achieve pleasure. Like other disciplines, Kama Shastra
also contains certain norms and disciplined actions necessary to achieve one's
OF READING KAMASHASTRA
addition to religion and earnings, Kama
or Carnal pleasures are the third goal of human life. Without proper knowledge
of Kama, one cannot experience other physical comforts. A married person is naturally
inclined toward carnal pleasures. In other words, carnal pleasures constitute
the basic reason for marriage.
A man and a woman agree to tie a nuptial knot only to experience carnal
pleasures. Marriage simply reflects a social nod for their union. But if two
people entering marriage lack the basic knowledge about it, they will not be
able to achieve the basic goal of marriage. It is here that the Kama Shastra
comes in the picture. Evidence shows that Kama or Carnal union of male and
female forces had not been taken for granted even in ancient times. Vedas,
Puranas and other literature describe the authenticity, necessity and relevance
of the Kama Shastra.
Ancient sages composed the Kama Shastra on the basis of the Vedas. Maharshi
Nandikeshwar was the first narrator of the Kama Shastra and divided it into
various chapters. Apart from these, great sages like Dattakacharya, Charayana,
Suvarn-nama Ghotakmukh, Gonardiya, Gonikaputra and Kuchumar also contributed
their knowledge into the evolution
and refinement of Kama Shastra. Sage Vatsayan gave the finishing touch to the
OF KAMASUTRA IN EDUCATION
Gurukula system of education was prevalent in ancient India. Abidance to
celibacy was a must for the inmates of Gurukul. Kamasutra was taught to the
celibate disciples during their stay at the
Gurukul. The disciples could enter married life only when he had a
thorough knowledge of Kamasutra. Of course, the study of Kamasutra followed the
study of the Vedas, Vedangas and other scriptures had been completed. Thus, by
the time, the disciples left the Gurukul, they were experts in the Vedas and
clever in social conduct. Their married life was expected to be free of problems